The second procedure of the classical biathlon, the clean and jerk, is made up of two actions: the clean of the bar to the chest and the jerk from the chest. The clean movement is formed of the following stages: starting position, the pull, the drop, the rising and the starting position for the jerk. The jerk is made up of: the dip squat or the split, the rising and fixing the barbell above the head.
It is similar to the one for the snatch, but due to the fact that the grip is narrower, the pelvis has a lower position and the trunk is less inclined. The soles of the feet are apart with of the shoulders with the toes parallel or slightly apart.
It is made up of two parts: the first one is slower and keeps on until the barbell reaches the lower third of the thighs and the trunk gets bigger. The “explosion” is achieved by the simultaneous effort of the legs and the back.
In order to achieve an efficient explosion, it is absolutely necessary for the lifter to support himself on the whole sole and after this, he will rise on tiptoes.
The highest point of the barbell is placed at the level of the belt. It is important not to reach higher level because it is dangerous and injuries can occur. When the barbell has reached the highest point of the pull, the split takes place.
Athletes can make the drop through two different ways: the split technique and the squat one. This last motion is much simpler and is why most of the lifter have adopted it and the one we are going to explain.
After the barbell has reached the highest point of the pull, a deep squat takes place concomitantly with the twisting of the elbows under the barbell and its setting on the chest. The squat is made with the soles in the same position, with toes apart at the beginning or after a jump and the elbows, which are raised at the level of the shoulders, must not touch the knees.
The rising from the squat position is executed easily if the shock produced by hitting the thighs on the calves is to be used, which greatly helps the athlete when rising from a deep squat.
During the rising, the back is straight, the elbows up and the head slightly backward.
After rising from squat position, the lifter gets ready to perform the second part of the motion, taking the starting position for the jerk.
In this position the barbell is placed on the shoulders while the trunk and the head keep the same straight line. The elbows are raised close to the level of the shoulders. The angle between the trunk and the arms must get mucho closer to 90º and the legs must be perfectly extended. From this position the second part of the jerk begins.
When a perfect balance has been stablished with the bar on the chest, a dip is made, followed immediately by the throwing of the barbell upward through the effort of the legs. In order to achieve a good dip, the following are necessary: the body together with the head remain in the erect position, the dip being performed only by means of the legs, without bending the trunk forward o backward.
The most favorable angles to made the dip are 110-120 degrees between the thighs and the tibia. The dip and the first part of the jerk are executed from the whole sole. Rising on tiptoes occurs in the second part of the jerk by virtue of inertia.
After the bar has reached, as a result of the jerk, the level of the forehead, a split takes place, with a view to facilitating the catching of the bar at arms’ length. Therefore, for the clean the force of the arms is not used. The split is higher than that described in the snatch and the clean for jerk.
During the split the balance is maintained with the help of the legs.
To catch the barbell on the extended arms during the split is the most important moment of the jerk.
When the barbell has been caught in the arms completely extended and the balance stablished, rising from the split position begins. The main action of this movement is represented by the conveying of the weight backward.
According to the rules, the barbell must be kept at arms’ length above the head, until the referee’s signal or the buzzer. The jerk has a duration of about 6-9 seconds. The split and the rising from the split are executed with breathing blocked.